Mediterranean diet reduces thromboxane A2 production in atrial fibrillation patients

"Platelet activation plays a major role in cardiovascular events.  Mediterranean diet reduces the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction but it is still unclear if it affects platelet activation.  Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Mediterranean diet on the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX) B2, a marker in vivo platelet activation, in patients with atrial fibillation."

"Med diet adherence is inversely associated to urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, suggesting that Med-Diet may favorably affect platelet function in AF patients."

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Relation of fish oil supplementation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

"Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits.  However, the effects of FOS on thrombosis are incompletely understood.  We sought to determine if the use of FOS is associated with lower indices of atherothrombotic risk in patients with suspected coronary artery disease."

"Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits. Patients on FOS had lower urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels regardless of lipid-lowering therapy."

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The influence of low-grade inflammation on platelets in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

"Inflammation is likely to be involved in all stages of atherosclerosis.  Numerous inflammatory biomarkers are currently being studied, and even subtle increases in inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).  Low-grade inflammation may influence both platelet production and platelet activation potentially leading to enhanced platelet aggregation."

"Increased levels of hsCRP and IL-6 were independently associated with increased platelet aggregation and urine-11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels (110). This association may be explained by aspirin-insensitive thromboxane generation derived from cyclooxygenase-2 in non-platelet cells."

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Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation

"Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) show high residual cardiovascular (CV) risk despite oral anticoagulants.  Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is associated with an increased risk of CV events (CVEs), but its predictive value in patients with anticoagulated AF is unknown."

"Urinary 11-dehydro-TxB2 levels are associated with a residual risk of CVEs and CV mortality in patients with AF despite anticoagulant treatment."

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Circulating Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in Colorectal Cancer and Potential Clinical Significance

"Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States.  Lack of reliable biomarkers remain a critical issue for early detection of Colorectal cancer.  In this study, we investigated the potential predictive values of circulating prostaglandin biosynthes in CRC risk."

“CRC progression is accompanied by a pronounced elevation of systemic TXA2 biosynthesis.” 

“Measurement of urinary TXA2 metabolites such as 11-dehydro TXB2 might provide the best estimate of systemic TXA2 biosynthesis in vivo”

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The Current and Future Landscape of Urinary Thromboxane Testing to Evaluate Atherothrombotic Risk

"Biomarker testing for efficacy of therapy is an accepted way for clinicians to individualize dosing to genetic and/or environmental factors that may be influencing a treatment regimen.  Aspirin is used by nearly 43 million Americans on a regular basis to reduce risks associated with various artherothrombotic diseases.  Despite its widespread use, many clinicians are unaware of the link between suboptimal response to aspirin therapy and increased risk for inferior clinical outcomes in several disease states, and biomarker testing for efficacy of aspirin therapy is not performed as routinely as efficacy testing in other therapeutic areas.  This article reviews the clinical and laboratory aspects of determining whole-body thromboxane production, particularly as it pertains to efficacy assessment of aspirin responsiveness."

"Aspirin use has been shown to cause a dose-dependent reduction in urinary levels of 11-dehydroTxB2."

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Role of platelets in inflammation and cancer; novel therapeutic strategies

“The results of clinical studies have shown that the antiplatelet drug aspirin reduces the incidence of vascular events and colorectal cancer.”

“Low-dose aspirin treatment (which is associated with a preferential inhibition of platelet COX-1) causes a 70-80% reduction of urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2  and 2,3-din-or-TXB2 excretion.”

"Moreover, the results of clinical studies have shown that the antiplatelet drug aspirin reduces the incidence of vascular events and colorectal cancer.  All these pieces of evidence support the notion that colorectal cancer and atherothrombosis may share a common mechanism of disease, that is, platelet activation in response to epithelial (in tumourigensis) and endothelial (in tumourgenesis and atherothrombosis) injury."

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Communicating clinical research to reduce cancer risk through diet: Walnuts as a case example

"The connection between diet and cancer has been well established, as affirmed by the considerable international consistency among dietary and lifestyle recommendations for reducing risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research, and the American Cancer Society guidance each emphasize a plant-based diet, a physically active lifestyle, limited alcohol, and maintaining a healthy weight."

“Both the walnut and fish diets inhibited prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, but had no effect on IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, or the number of circulating lymphocyte subsets.”

“A plant-based diet is associated with decreased risk for cancer and other chronic diseases, due in part to reduced chronic inflammation.”

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Synthetic analogues of flavonoids with improved activity against platelet activation and aggregation as novel prototypes of food supplements

"We investigated the ability of quercetin and apigenin to modulate platelet activation and aggregation, and compared the observed efficacy with that displayed by their synthetic analogues (2-phenyl-4Hpyrido, etc.) Platelet aggregation was explored through a spectorphotometric assay on platelet-rich-plasma treated with the thromboxane A2 mimetic, collagen and thrombin in presence/absence of various bioisosteres of flavanoids."

"The inhibitory effect of these compounds might rely on TXA2 antagonism."

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Flavonoids-clinical effects and applications in dentistry: a review

"Flavonoids include a huge group of naturally occurring organic compounds.  It is found in a large variety of plants including fruits, seeds, grains, tea vegetables, nuts and wine.  Many studies have shown that there is a strong association between flavonoid intake and the long-term effects on mortality.  It is widely used in dentistry and it has many clinical effects.  This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids to humankind and its clinical applications in dentistry."

"It is recognized that arachidonic acid, which is released during the inflammatory conditions, is metabolized by platelets to form endoperoxides, prostaglandin, and thromboxane A2 which leads primarily to platelet activation and aggregation."

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