Chronic Inflammation Resources

The role of chronic inflammation in wellness and the development and progression of chronic disease is becoming more evident every day. Information sources from peer-reviewed medical publications to social media continue to be filled with new information. We are dedicated to sharing information pertaining to chronic inflammation from reliable sources.

Glucocorticoids Impair Platelet Thromboxane Biosynthesis in Community—Acquired Pneumonia

“Previous reports suggest that community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with an enhanced risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and that enhanced platelet activation may play a role.  Aims of this study were to investigate if urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane (Tx) B2, a reliable marker of platelet activation in vivo, was elevated in CAP and whether glucocorticoid administration reduced platelet activation”.
“Compared to controls, CAP patients showed significantly higher levels of 11-dehydro-TxB2.  A COX regression analysis showed that 11-dehydro-TxB2 independently predicted MI.  CAP patients treated with glucocorticoids showed significantly lower levels of 11-dehydro-TxB2 compared to untreated ones”.

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2218-PUB: Increased Platelet Reactivity Is Associated with Inflammation and Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Prediabetes

"We investigated markers of platelet reactivity and low-grade inflammation, and their association with early markers of vascular disease in subjects with prediabetes and new onset type 2 diabetes (NDOM)."

"Platelet reactivity was evaluated as 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 urinary levels (TXB2)"

"TXB2 urinary levels were independently associated with hs-CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c in multiple regression analysis."

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Digoxin and Platelet Activation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: In Vivo and In Vitro Study

"Digoxin use was shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that digoxin may affect cardiovascular risk by increasing platelet activation. Urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a marker of platelet activation, and serum digoxin concentration (SDC) were measured. Patients in the upper tertile of SDC showed higher 11-dehydro-TxB2 compared with non-digoxin users. In vitro study showed an increased basal platelet activation in patients with AF compared with healthy subjects."

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Treatment of bipolar depression with minocycline and/or aspirin: an adaptive, 2×2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase IIA clinical trial

“Given evidence of chronic inflammation in bipolar disorder (BD), we tested the efficacy of aspirin and minocycline as augmentation therapy for bipolar depression.

"The absence of a significant interaction between the efficacy of aspirin treatment and baseline levels of CRP and/or IL-6 may reflect Type II error given the relatively small samples, but also may reflect the clinically non-significant anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose aspirin in autoimmune or other inflammatory disorders".

"In this regard, this first report of higher baseline 11-D-TXB2 levels in the BD sample relative to the control sample (Figure S2) is noteworthy as it suggests that the activity of the arachidonic acid pathway is elevated in a subset of individuals with BD, consistent with previous hypotheses".

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Role of Cox-2/PGE2 Mediated inflammation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

"Oral cancer include malignancy of the oral cavity and oropharynx, 90% of which are squamous cell carcinoma.  Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCP) is a very aggressive neoplasm and is often diagnosed late in the disease.  Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between chronic inflammation and a variety of cancer types, including OSCC."

"A significant amount of research indicates that the cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway of inflammation contributes to the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cacity and oropharynx (OSCC). Although there have been promising results from studies examining the utility of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of toxicities, this strategy has been met with only variable success and may make them inappropriate for some OSCC patients.  Improved inflammation-targeting therapies require continued study of the mechanisms linking inflammation and progression of OSCC.  In this review, a synopsis of OSCC biology will be provided, and recent insights into inflammation related mechanisms of OSCC pathobiology will be discussed  The roles of prostaglandin E2 and cluster of differentiation factor 147 (CD147) will be presented, and evidence for their interactions in OSCC will be explored.  Through continued investigation into the protumourigenic pathways of OSCC, more treatment modalities targeting inflammation-related pathways can be designed with the hope of slowing tumour progression and improving patient prognosis in patients with this aggressive form of cancer."

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Curcumin May Help Lower Inflammation in metabolic syndrome

"Adding spice- in the form of curcumin supplements - to the daily diets of people with risk factors for heart disease may lower inflammation, a new study suggests."

"Inflammation is implicated in a wide range of illnesses, from heart disease to cancer and joint pain.  In the eight week trial, researchers found significant reductions in signs of inflammation, such as C-Reactive protein and other blood markers."

"Curcumin is the active ingredient of the famous spice turmeric and has a long history of culinary and medicinal use in the Asian countries," said the study's senior author Amirhossein Sahebkar."

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Thromboxane-Dependent Platelet Activation in Obese Subjects with Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of Liraglutide or Lifestyle Changes-Induced Weight Loss

"Thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, as reflected in vivo by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXBand 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2a, play a key role in atherothrombosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) since the earlier stages."

"After achievement of the weight loss target, a comparable reduction in U-11-dehydro-TXB2 (between-group = 0.679) and 8-iso-PGF-2a (p = 0.985) was observed in both arms in parallel with a comparable improvement in glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, SAT, high-sensativity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)." 

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Significance of urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 in age-related diseases: Focus on atherothrombosis

"Although urinary11-dehydro-TXB2 levels are largely suppressed with low-dose aspirin, incomplete suppression by aspirin predicts the future risk of vascular events and death in high-risk patients and may identify individuals who might benefit from treatments that more effectively block in vivo TX production or activity. Several disease-modifying agents, including lifestyle intervention, antidiabetic drugs and antiplatelet agents besides aspirin have been shown to reduce TX biosynthesis."

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Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators

"Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 levels are associated with vascular inflammation and prognosis in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease."

"Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite recent advances in its management and treatment. Inflammation is a key driver of the pathogenesis and progression of ASCVD in preclinical models and humans." 

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Perioperative Urinary Thromboxane Metabolites and Outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Nested Case-Control Study

"As a marker of in vivo thromboxane generation, high-level urinary thromboxane metabolites (TXA-M) increase the occurance of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. To investigate whether perioperative urinary TXA-M level is associated with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, we designed a nested case-control study."

"Post-CABG 24 hours urinary TXA-M elevation is associated with an increase of 1 year adverse events after CABG."

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