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Chronic Inflammation Resources

The role of chronic inflammation in wellness and the development and progression of chronic disease is becoming more evident every day. Information sources from peer-reviewed medical publications to social media continue to be filled with new information. We are dedicated to sharing information pertaining to chronic inflammation from reliable sources.

Evaluation of Dose-Related Effects of Aspirin on Platelet Function

"The antiplatelet effect of aspirin is attributed to platelet cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition.  Controversy exists on the prevalence of platelet resistance to aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease and effects of aspirin dose on inhibition.  Our primary aim was to determine the degree of platelet aspirin responsiveness in patients, as measured by commonly used methods, and to study the relation of aspirin dose to platelet inhibition."

"Meta-analyses of clinical trials have indicated that aspirin treatment of patients with vascular disease is associated with a 25% to 44% reduction in adverse cardiovascular events.  The antithrombotic effect of aspirin has been primarily attributed to the irreversible blockade of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme in platelets that leads to attenuation in the production of an important platelet agonist, thromboxane A2.  In recent years, an increasing number of reports about aspirin resistance has led to a growing concern among clinicians and patients about the efficacy of aspirin treatment.  Various studies have evaluated the antiplatelet effect of aspirin therapy and have reported the prevalence of aspirin resistance to be between 9.4% to 35%."

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Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 as a predictor of acute myocardial infarction outcomes: results of leukotriene and thromboxane in myocardial infarction (LTMI) study

"Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 has been described as a potential predictive biomarker of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in high cardiac risk patients.”

“11-Dehydro-TXB2 predicts 1-year cumulative MACEs in AMI patients and provides prognostic information on the left ventricular performance."

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The Current and Future Landscape of Urinary Thromboxane Testing to Evaluate Atherothrombotic Risk


"Biomarker testing for efficacy of therapy is an accepted way for clinicians to individualize dosing to genetic and/or environmental factors that may be influencing a treatment regimen.  Aspirin is used by nearly 43 million Americans on a regular basis to reduce risks associated with various artherothrombotic diseases.  Despite its widespread use, many clinicians are unaware of the link between suboptimal response to aspirin therapy and increased risk for inferior clinical outcomes in several disease states, and biomarker testing for efficacy of aspirin therapy is not performed as routinely as efficacy testing in other therapeutic areas.  This article reviews the clinical and laboratory aspects of determining whole-body thromboxane production, particularly as it pertains to efficacy assessment of aspirin responsiveness."

"Aspirin use has been shown to cause a dose-dependent reduction in urinary levels of 11-dehydroTxB2."

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Oxidant Stress as a major determinant of platelet activation in invasive breast cancer

“Breast cancer (BC) is the most common female cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, worldwide."  Recent data have clearly demonstrated that type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are among the most important risk factors for postmenopausal estrogen-dependent BC, also suggesting that oxidative stress might represent a shared mechanism for BC initiation and/or progression.

 “The results obtained showed that presurgical urinary excretion of both biomarkers was enhanced in BC patients compared to controls and was associated with patients’ estrogen receptor (ER) expression, but not HER2 status or Ki67 proliferation index. Accordingly, both urinary biomarkers were increased in patients with luminal-like BC molecular subtypes compared with triple negative or HER2-enriched tumors. "The prognostic value of 11-dehydro-TXB2 was then evaluated showing a significant correlation with BC pathological response to neoadjuvant treatment. Furthermore, among relapsing patients, those with elevated urinary biomarker levels were more likely to develop distant metastasis rather than local recurrence."

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Inhibiting breast cancer by targeting the thromboxane A2 pathway

“Cyclooxygenases have been implicated in mammary tumorigenesis. We sought to identify the key prostaglandin responsible for the pro-neoplastic effect of cyclooxygenases and develop prostaglandin-targeted strategies for breast cancer chemoprevention or therapy."

“Clinically, the thromboxane A2 pathway might be associated with HER2- positive and axillary lymph node metastasis in human breast cancer. We found that the thromboxane A2 pathway was required for breast cancer cell growth, anchorage-independent growth and invasion capabilities."

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Is Depression an Inflammatory Disorder?

“Studies consistently report that groups of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate increased levels of a variety of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers when compared with groups of nondepressed individuals."

 “Two randomized, placebo-controlled studies have reported that the addition of an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase enzyme to a standard antidepressant enhances symptomatic improvement in medically healthy individuals with depression.  Similarly, preclinical and clinical data suggest that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) may hold promise as an augmenting strategy in patients who fail to respond to monotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor."

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Treatment of bipolar depression with minocycline and/or aspirin: an adaptive, 2×2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase IIA clinical trial

“Given evidence of chronic inflammation in bipolar disorder (BD), we tested the efficacy of aspirin and minocycline as augmentation therapy for bipolar depression.

"The absence of a significant interaction between the efficacy of aspirin treatment and baseline levels of CRP and/or IL-6 may reflect Type II error given the relatively small samples, but also may reflect the clinically non-significant anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose aspirin in autoimmune or other inflammatory disorders".

"In this regard, this first report of higher baseline 11-D-TXB2 levels in the BD sample relative to the control sample (Figure S2) is noteworthy as it suggests that the activity of the arachidonic acid pathway is elevated in a subset of individuals with BD, consistent with previous hypotheses".

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New Year - New You - What’s Your Score?

"2019 is finally here. It feels like you have been celebrating the holidays for the last three months. In fact, you have. Your favorite jeans are now leaving unsightly red welts in unmentionable places and your previously contained gut is rolling over your waist band in an unholy cascade. Maybe adding egnog to your cereal every morning wasn't such a good idea after all."

"You've seen all the advertisements and have made up your mind; it is time to get serious and get this weight under control."

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Role of Cox-2/PGE2 Mediated inflammation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

"Oral cancer include malignancy of the oral cavity and oropharynx, 90% of which are squamous cell carcinoma.  Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCP) is a very aggressive neoplasm and is often diagnosed late in the disease.  Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between chronic inflammation and a variety of cancer types, including OSCC."

"A significant amount of research indicates that the cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway of inflammation contributes to the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cacity and oropharynx (OSCC). Although there have been promising results from studies examining the utility of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of toxicities, this strategy has been met with only variable success and may make them inappropriate for some OSCC patients.  Improved inflammation-targeting therapies require continued study of the mechanisms linking inflammation and progression of OSCC.  In this review, a synopsis of OSCC biology will be provided, and recent insights into inflammation related mechanisms of OSCC pathobiology will be discussed  The roles of prostaglandin E2 and cluster of differentiation factor 147 (CD147) will be presented, and evidence for their interactions in OSCC will be explored.  Through continued investigation into the protumourigenic pathways of OSCC, more treatment modalities targeting inflammation-related pathways can be designed with the hope of slowing tumour progression and improving patient prognosis in patients with this aggressive form of cancer."

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Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease

"There are two common diseases affecting the periodotium.  The first is gingivitis, which is defined as inflammation of the gingiva in which the connective tissue attachment to the tooth remains at its original level.  The disease is limited to the soft-tissue compartment of the gingival epithelium and connective tissue.  The second is periodontitis, which is an inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth with progressive attachment loss and bone destruction.  Both diseases and their symptoms are very common in populations worldwide.  In the USA, adolescents have gingivitis and signs of gingival bleeding, whereas 54% of the adult population in the USA exhibits gingival bleeding.  Thirty-seven per cent of the adult population in the USA suffers from severe periodontitis.  In both cases, the disease is associated with the accumulation of bacteria at the dento-gingival margin, while the causal relationship of specific organisms is not fully clear.  The host responds to microbial challenge by generating an inflammatory cell infiltrate in the tissue sub adjacent to the periodontal pocket."

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