Complementary & Alternative

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to the use of medical products and practices unlike traditional medical practice. Alternative medicine refers to treatments used in place of traditional ones. Complementary medicine refers to non-traditional treatments together with traditional medical practices. Many of the CAM products and treatments that are utilized by healthcare practitioners are known to have a significant effect on the thromboxane A2 pathway and the prevention and reduction of chronic inflammation. Levels of urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 reflect activity of components of the thromboxane A2 pathway that result in thromboxane A2 generation.

Curcumin May Help Lower Inflammation in metabolic syndrome

"Adding spice- in the form of curcumin supplements - to the daily diets of people with risk factors for heart disease may lower inflammation, a new study suggests."

"Inflammation is implicated in a wide range of illnesses, from heart disease to cancer and joint pain.  In the eight week trial, researchers found significant reductions in signs of inflammation, such as C-Reactive protein and other blood markers."

"Curcumin is the active ingredient of the famous spice turmeric and has a long history of culinary and medicinal use in the Asian countries," said the study's senior author Amirhossein Sahebkar."

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Targeting arachidonic pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy

Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogensis.  Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A2s (PLA2S), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer."

"Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2."

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Relation of fish oil supplementation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

"Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits.  However, the effects of FOS on thrombosis are incompletely understood.  We sought to determine if the use of FOS is associated with lower indices of atherothrombotic risk in patients with suspected coronary artery disease."

"Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits. Patients on FOS had lower urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels regardless of lipid-lowering therapy."

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Synthetic analogues of flavonoids with improved activity against platelet activation and aggregation as novel prototypes of food supplements

"We investigated the ability of quercetin and apigenin to modulate platelet activation and aggregation, and compared the observed efficacy with that displayed by their synthetic analogues (2-phenyl-4Hpyrido, etc.) Platelet aggregation was explored through a spectorphotometric assay on platelet-rich-plasma treated with the thromboxane A2 mimetic, collagen and thrombin in presence/absence of various bioisosteres of flavanoids."

"The inhibitory effect of these compounds might rely on TXA2 antagonism."

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Flavonoids-clinical effects and applications in dentistry: a review

"Flavonoids include a huge group of naturally occurring organic compounds.  It is found in a large variety of plants including fruits, seeds, grains, tea vegetables, nuts and wine.  Many studies have shown that there is a strong association between flavonoid intake and the long-term effects on mortality.  It is widely used in dentistry and it has many clinical effects.  This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids to humankind and its clinical applications in dentistry."

"It is recognized that arachidonic acid, which is released during the inflammatory conditions, is metabolized by platelets to form endoperoxides, prostaglandin, and thromboxane A2 which leads primarily to platelet activation and aggregation."

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Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on markers of inflammation in men with metabolic syndrome

"Inflammation is now undisputedly recognized as being a key etiological factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease."

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Dietary fish oil alters the lysophospholipid metabolomic profile and decreases urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 concentration in healthy Beagles

"After dietary treatment with different amounts of fish oil, age (increases 11-dehydro TXB2) was followed by EPA concentration as a significant negative predictor of urine 11-dehydro TXB2 concentration (increasing serum concentrations of EPA decrease 11-dehydro TXB2), and then lean-body mass (decreases 11-dehydro TXB2)."

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Pharmacological activities of flavonoids: a review

"It is well known that arachidonic acid, which is released in inflammatory conditions, is metabolized by platelets to form prostaglandin, endoperoxides, and thromboxane A2 leading to platelet activation and aggregation. The main antiaggregatory effect of flavonoids is thought to be by inhibition of thromboxane A2 formation."

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Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome

"Metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of risk factors related to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.  Occurrence of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes and their vascular complications share several pathogenetic features including subclinical, low-grade inflammation, alterred oxidative/antioxidant status, and persistent platelet activation."

"We examined the effects of short-term vitamin E supplementation (600 mg daily for 2 week) on the urinary excretion of 8-iso-PGF2alpha and 11-dehydro-TXB2. Vitamin E supplementation was associated with detectable changes in plasma vitamin E levels and caused virtually complete normalization of 8-iso-PGF2alpha excretion. Moreover, changes in F2-isoprostane formation were accompanied by similar reductions in thromboxane metabolite excretion."

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Casual chocolate consumption and inhibition of platelet function

"Observational studies have associated reduced cardiovascular mortality with chocolate consumption.  Feeding studies of high-dose, flavanol-rich chocolate show antiplatelet effects, but the effect of casual chocolate consumption on platelet function is unknown."

"Despite having similar baseline characteristics, chocolate consumers had longer PFA closure times (130 vs 123 seconds, P=05) and decreased Tx-M levels (175 vs 290 ng/molcreatinine, P=.03). Chocolate remained a significant independent predictor of both ex-vivo and in vivo platelet function testing after adjusting for confounders."

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