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Complementary & Alternative

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to the use of medical products and practices unlike traditional medical practice. Alternative medicine refers to treatments used in place of traditional ones. Complementary medicine refers to non-traditional treatments together with traditional medical practices. Many of the CAM products and treatments that are utilized by healthcare practitioners are known to have a significant effect on the thromboxane A2 pathway and the prevention and reduction of chronic inflammation. Levels of urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 reflect activity of components of the thromboxane A2 pathway that result in thromboxane A2 generation.

Curcumin May Help Lower Inflammation in metabolic syndrome

"Adding spice- in the form of curcumin supplements - to the daily diets of people with risk factors for heart disease may lower inflammation, a new study suggests."

"Inflammation is implicated in a wide range of illnesses, from heart disease to cancer and joint pain.  In the eight week trial, researchers found significant reductions in signs of inflammation, such as C-Reactive protein and other blood markers."

"Curcumin is the active ingredient of the famous spice turmeric and has a long history of culinary and medicinal use in the Asian countries," said the study's senior author Amirhossein Sahebkar."

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Synthetic analogues of flavonoids with improved activity against platelet activation and aggregation as novel prototypes of food supplements

"We investigated the ability of quercetin and apigenin to modulate platelet activation and aggregation, and compared the observed efficacy with that displayed by their synthetic analogues (2-phenyl-4Hpyrido, etc.) Platelet aggregation was explored through a spectorphotometric assay on platelet-rich-plasma treated with the thromboxane A2 mimetic, collagen and thrombin in presence/absence of various bioisosteres of flavanoids."

"The inhibitory effect of these compounds might rely on TXA2 antagonism."

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Reduction of thromboxane A2 synthesis in pregnancy by polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements

"High-dose supplements of fish oil reduce thromboxane synthesis in nonpregnant human subjects and were therefore proposed as a means of preventing various small-vessel disorders, including preeclampsia.  The effect of fish oil on thromboxane metabolism in pregnancy was investigated in our study."

"A decrease ranging from 32% to 71%, in 24-hour urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 excretion (mean reduction from 1606 pg/mg creatinine to 779 pg/mg creatinine, p < 0.001) was found among the 11 fish oil-treated women. No change in excretion was found among the control women. No maternal, fetal, or neonatal bleeding disturbances occurred, and no laboratory changes in coagulation markers were observed.”

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Dietary fish oil alters the lysophospholipid metabolomic profile and decreases urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 concentration in healthy Beagles

"After dietary treatment with different amounts of fish oil, age (increases 11-dehydro TXB2) was followed by EPA concentration as a significant negative predictor of urine 11-dehydro TXB2 concentration (increasing serum concentrations of EPA decrease 11-dehydro TXB2), and then lean-body mass (decreases 11-dehydro TXB2)."

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Casual chocolate consumption and inhibition of platelet function

"Observational studies have associated reduced cardiovascular mortality with chocolate consumption.  Feeding studies of high-dose, flavanol-rich chocolate show antiplatelet effects, but the effect of casual chocolate consumption on platelet function is unknown."

"Despite having similar baseline characteristics, chocolate consumers had longer PFA closure times (130 vs 123 seconds, P=05) and decreased Tx-M levels (175 vs 290 ng/molcreatinine, P=.03). Chocolate remained a significant independent predictor of both ex-vivo and in vivo platelet function testing after adjusting for confounders."

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Efficiency of pharmacologically-active antioxidant phytomedicine radical fruits in treatment hypercholestermia at men

"Urinary 8-epi-PGF2 alpha level decreased from 450 +/- 170 to 330 +/- 159 Pg/mg creatinine, urinary 11-dehydro-TxB2 level decreased from 1,200 +/- 420 to 790 +/- 320 pg/mg creatinine with no changes in the placebo group."

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Flavonoids-clinical effects and applications in dentistry: a review

"Flavonoids include a huge group of naturally occurring organic compounds.  It is found in a large variety of plants including fruits, seeds, grains, tea vegetables, nuts and wine.  Many studies have shown that there is a strong association between flavonoid intake and the long-term effects on mortality.  It is widely used in dentistry and it has many clinical effects.  This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids to humankind and its clinical applications in dentistry."

"It is recognized that arachidonic acid, which is released during the inflammatory conditions, is metabolized by platelets to form endoperoxides, prostaglandin, and thromboxane A2 which leads primarily to platelet activation and aggregation."

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Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on markers of inflammation in men with metabolic syndrome

"Inflammation is now undisputedly recognized as being a key etiological factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease."

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The effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome

"Dietary patterns high in refined starches, sugar, and saturated and trans-fatty acids and poor in natural antioxidants and fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may cause an activation of the innate immune system, most likely by an excessive reduction of proinflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This imbalance may favor the generation of a proinflammatory milieu, which in turn produces endothelial dysfunction at the vascular level and ultimately predisposes susceptible people to increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome and CHD."

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Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome

"Metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of risk factors related to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.  Occurrence of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes and their vascular complications share several pathogenetic features including subclinical, low-grade inflammation, alterred oxidative/antioxidant status, and persistent platelet activation."

"We examined the effects of short-term vitamin E supplementation (600 mg daily for 2 week) on the urinary excretion of 8-iso-PGF2alpha and 11-dehydro-TXB2. Vitamin E supplementation was associated with detectable changes in plasma vitamin E levels and caused virtually complete normalization of 8-iso-PGF2alpha excretion. Moreover, changes in F2-isoprostane formation were accompanied by similar reductions in thromboxane metabolite excretion."

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