The cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols-an overview

"Cocoa and cocoa polyphenols appear to exert promising cardioprotective effect in humans."

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Statin therapy and inflammation in patients with diabetes treated with high dose aspirin

"Statin and aspirin form the therapeutic cornerstone in patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes.  Little is known about relationship of statins with blood thrombogenicity and inflammation in these patients."

"Statins along with aspirin, confers additional anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effect in diabetics with CAD. Urinary 11-DHTXB2 may be a useful biomarker for personalizing statin therapy."

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Aspirin use and reduced risk of pancreatic cancer

"Few options besides the avoidance of smoking and obesity are available to prevent pancreatic cancer.  The association between aspirin use and risk of pancreatic cancer has been inconsistent across studies.  

"Regular use of aspirin thus appears to reduce risk of pancreatic cancer by almost half."

"People who take aspirin for prevention of other diseases likely also reduce their risk of pancreatic cancer.  Aside from benefits for both cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, long term aspirin use entails some risks of bleeding complications, which necessitates risk-benefit analysis for individual decisions about use."

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Curcumin anticancer studies in pancreatic cancer

"Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers woldwide.  Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis"

"We also demonstrated that curcumin inhibited the proliferation and enhanced the apoptosis of MIA PaCA-2 cells, through the suppression of NF-kB-activation."

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Targeting arachidonic pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy

Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogensis.  Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A2s (PLA2S), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer."

"Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2."

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Aspirin and Cancer

"The place of aspirin in primary prevention remains controversial, with North American and European organizations issuing contradictory treatment guidelines.  More recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended "initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer in adults aged 50-59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years."  This recommendation reflects increasing evidence for a chemopreventive effect of low-dose aspirin against colorectal (and other) cancer.  The intent of this paper is to review the evidence supporting a chemopreventive effect of aspirin, discuss its potential mechanism (s) of action, and provide a conceptual framework for assessing current guidelines in the light of ongoing studies."

"The protective effects of low-dose aspirin against cancer appear to reflect the prevention of early neoplastic transformation throughout the alimentary tract, as well as an antimetastatic action. Both effects may be explained by the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin."

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The improvement of walking abilities and endothelial function after the supervised training treadmill program

"In this prospective study we evaluated the relationship between thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prostacyclin (PGI2) and lactate concentrations, and the improvement of walking abilities and endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing a supervised treadmill training program (STTP)."

The Maximal Walking Time (MWT) improved significantly after STTP by 91% (p<0.0001) and PFWT by 97% (P<0.0001).  Also ankle/brachial index (ABI) values improved significantly after STTP in all patient groups and was more pronounced in those with longer MWT at baseline.  FMD values increased by 45% (p<0.0001) after STTP.  Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 and 2, 3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1a concentration tend to decrease after STTP and their ratio remained unchanged.  Lactate levels did not change after the treadmill training program.  Hs-CRP and fibrinogen concentration decreased signficantly after STTP only in patients with longer MWT at baseline - fourth quartile".

"STTP in patients with PAD showed signficantly improved walking abilities and endothelialial function."

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Oxidative stress reflected by increased F2-isoprostanes is associated with increasing urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels in patients with coronary artery disease.2016

"Oxidative stress is a potential mechanism of incomplete inhibition of COX-1.

"8-isoPGF2a was found to be independently and positively associated with 11 dhTxB2."

"Elevated 11dhTxB2 was found to increase the risk of adverse events in patients with stable CAD [12] and myocardial infarction."

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11-Dehydro thromboxane B2 levels after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease during a one year follow-up period.

"Overall the mean TXB2 values immediately after PTA were significantly higher than either before the procedure (1524.4 pg/mg ± 1411.1 vs. 2098.1 pg/mg creatinine ± 1661.8; P=0.00002), the day after PTA, or at any other point during the study.”

"Moreover, preoperative TXB2 levels correlated well with the composite endpoints of death, myocardial infarction and stroke during the follow-up period"

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Age-related increase of thromboxane B2 and risk of cardiovascular disease in atrial fibrillation

"Cardiovascular events (CVEs) represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population.  Several mechanisms have been proposed so far to explain the age-related incidence of CVs.  Thus, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension and diabetes increases in elderly people.  Of note is that despite increasingly effective cardiovascular preventive strategies a portion of patients still experience cardiovascular complications."

"Urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-txb2 increases by advancing age, peaking after 70 years."

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