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Resources

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Impact of commonly prescribed exercise interventions on platelet activation in physically inactive and overweight men

"The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may  be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout.  However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed.  We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation."

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A Japanese cross-sectional multicenter study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

“The mean hs-CRP concentration was not significantly different between the two groups of subjects.”

“We found that the 11-DTXB2 concentration was about 24% greater in smokers than in non-smokers, supporting the use of 11-DTXB2 as a potential biomarker for smoking and CVD.”

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Nicotine effects on eicosanoid formation and hemostatic function: comparison of transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking

“Cigarette smoking increased the urinary excretion of 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (reflecting thromboxane A2 generation).”

“Cigarette smoking was also associated with higher levels of fibrinogen in plasma.”

“Cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine treatment were both associated with a higher white blood cell count compared with the placebo patch.”

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Molecular targets of tea polyphenols in the cardiovascular system

"Tea-derived polyphenols have attracted considerable attention in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.  In comparison to tumour cells, the elucidation of their molecular targets in cardiovascular relevant cells is still at the beginning.  Although promising, experimental and clinical data demonstrate protective effects for the cardiovasclar system, little information is actually available on how these beneficial effects of tea polyphenols are mediated at the cellular level.  By affecting the activity of receptor and signal transduction kinases, both catechins and theaflavins - the major ingredients of green and black tea, respectively - exert a variety of cardiovascular beneficial effects."

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Effects of pomegranate juice and extract polyphenols on platelet function

"Several clinical and In Vitro studies showed that polyphenols are able to inhibit platelet activation, preventing cerebro- and cardiovascular disease.  The Mediterranean diet includes fruit and vegetables rich in polyphenols known as effective protective agents.  Fruits and vegetables contain polyphenols such as tannins found in red wine and phenolic acid, flavonones, anthoscyanin, flavonols, stilbenes, and lignans found in pomegranates as protective agents from the hot Meditarranean sunshine."

“We have shown that pomegranate juice reduces every step of platelet activation, such as platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, hydrogen peroxide formation, and TxA2 production induced by collagen and arachidonic acid.”

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Natural sources of resveratrol and mechanisms of action with emphasis on cardiovascular disease: a brief review

“Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of red wine reduces the mortality and morbidity from CAD. Muscadine grapes contain high levels of antioxidants, including resveratrol, a polyphenol with multiple cardioprotective effects.” 

"These antioxidants are thought to be the effective agents behind the so-called "French Paradox," the low mortality rate from CAD amongs the French population desipite their high-fat diet and smoking."

"Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation of LDL, prevent the cytoxicity of oxidized LDL, protect cells against lipid peroxidation, reduce platelet aggregation, and inhibit vascular SMC proliferation".

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The cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate

"Dark chocolate contains many biologically active components, such as catechins, procyanidins, and theobromine from cocoa, together with added sucrose and lipids.  All of these can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system by multiple mechanisms."

"The effect of chocolate is more convoluted since the sucrose and lipid may transiently and negatively impact on endothelial function, partly through insulin signaling and nitric oxide bioavailability."

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The cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols-an overview

"Cocoa and cocoa polyphenols appear to exert promising cardioprotective effect in humans."

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Role of dietary polyphenols in the platelet aggregation network - a review of the in vitro studies

"Several epidemiological studies have reported a negative association between the intake of dietary polyphenols and the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Conversely, a certain number of studies have reported no association."

"The activity of dietary polyphenols on CVD has been attributed to both their antioxidant activity in preventing LDL oxidation, and to their effect on the pathogenesis of thrombosis by interfering with platelet activation and function.  In fact, platelets play an important role not only in the formation of actute thrombus and vessel occulsion, but also in the development of athersclerosis and CVD."

“The anti-aggregating effect depends in part on the specific structure of the phenol, even though great differences in anti-aggregating activity have been observed within each class.”

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Endogenous secretory RAGE in obese women: association with platelet activation and oxidative stress

"Excess adiposity may be implicated in RAGE hyperactivation and thromboxane-dependent platelet activation, contributing to obesity-related metabolic and vascular disease."

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