Resources

Resources

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Communicating clinical research to reduce cancer risk through diet: Walnuts as a case example

"The connection between diet and cancer has been well established, as affirmed by the considerable international consistency among dietary and lifestyle recommendations for reducing risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research, and the American Cancer Society guidance each emphasize a plant-based diet, a physically active lifestyle, limited alcohol, and maintaining a healthy weight."

“Both the walnut and fish diets inhibited prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, but had no effect on IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, or the number of circulating lymphocyte subsets.”

“A plant-based diet is associated with decreased risk for cancer and other chronic diseases, due in part to reduced chronic inflammation.”

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The thromboxane synthase and receptor signaling pathway in cancer: an emerging paradigm in cancer progression and metastasis

“Increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression has been described in a variety of human cancers, which has focused attention on TXA2 as a downstream metabolite of the COX-2-derived PGH2.”

“It is a great importance to further determine whether and how prostanoids, such as TXA2, mediate the effects of COX-2 in cancer, potentially leading to a more targeted approach for cancer prevention and treatment."

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Molecular targets of dietary polyphenols with anti-inflammatory properties

"Inflammation is the immunological defense mechanism by which the body fights infection or injury from bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.  The defining clinical features of inflammation are known in Latin as rubor (redness), calor (warmth), tumor (swelling) and dolor (pain)."

"In the early 1970's, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were found to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX), which produces prostaglandins (PG's), a class of physiological and pathophysiological inflammatory mediators.  Since then, the biosynthetic cascade of arachadonic acid (AA) has been the subject of intense research.  This is because AA, having been previously liberated from phospholipids using various stimuli, can be metabolized by the COX pathway into PG's and thromboxane A2, or by the lipoxygenase pathways to hydroperoxyeicosateraenoic acids, (HpETEs), hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids (HETEs), and leukotrienes (LTs).  These proteins play a vital role in inflammation by controlling the intensitry and duration of pain, as well as the occurrence of fever, swelling and heat of an affected area."

“Given that certain polyphenols are known to affect more than one protein, it is necessary consider the possibility that any single com- pound may affect multiple mechanisms.”

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Impact of commonly prescribed exercise interventions on platelet activation in physically inactive and overweight men

"The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may  be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout.  However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed.  We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation."

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A Japanese cross-sectional multicenter study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

“The mean hs-CRP concentration was not significantly different between the two groups of subjects.”

“We found that the 11-DTXB2 concentration was about 24% greater in smokers than in non-smokers, supporting the use of 11-DTXB2 as a potential biomarker for smoking and CVD.”

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Nicotine effects on eicosanoid formation and hemostatic function: comparison of transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking

“Cigarette smoking increased the urinary excretion of 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (reflecting thromboxane A2 generation).”

“Cigarette smoking was also associated with higher levels of fibrinogen in plasma.”

“Cigarette smoking and transdermal nicotine treatment were both associated with a higher white blood cell count compared with the placebo patch.”

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Molecular targets of tea polyphenols in the cardiovascular system

"Tea-derived polyphenols have attracted considerable attention in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.  In comparison to tumour cells, the elucidation of their molecular targets in cardiovascular relevant cells is still at the beginning.  Although promising, experimental and clinical data demonstrate protective effects for the cardiovasclar system, little information is actually available on how these beneficial effects of tea polyphenols are mediated at the cellular level.  By affecting the activity of receptor and signal transduction kinases, both catechins and theaflavins - the major ingredients of green and black tea, respectively - exert a variety of cardiovascular beneficial effects."

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Effects of pomegranate juice and extract polyphenols on platelet function

"Several clinical and In Vitro studies showed that polyphenols are able to inhibit platelet activation, preventing cerebro- and cardiovascular disease.  The Mediterranean diet includes fruit and vegetables rich in polyphenols known as effective protective agents.  Fruits and vegetables contain polyphenols such as tannins found in red wine and phenolic acid, flavonones, anthoscyanin, flavonols, stilbenes, and lignans found in pomegranates as protective agents from the hot Meditarranean sunshine."

“We have shown that pomegranate juice reduces every step of platelet activation, such as platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, hydrogen peroxide formation, and TxA2 production induced by collagen and arachidonic acid.”

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Natural sources of resveratrol and mechanisms of action with emphasis on cardiovascular disease: a brief review

“Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of red wine reduces the mortality and morbidity from CAD. Muscadine grapes contain high levels of antioxidants, including resveratrol, a polyphenol with multiple cardioprotective effects.” 

"These antioxidants are thought to be the effective agents behind the so-called "French Paradox," the low mortality rate from CAD amongs the French population desipite their high-fat diet and smoking."

"Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation of LDL, prevent the cytoxicity of oxidized LDL, protect cells against lipid peroxidation, reduce platelet aggregation, and inhibit vascular SMC proliferation".

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The cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate

"Dark chocolate contains many biologically active components, such as catechins, procyanidins, and theobromine from cocoa, together with added sucrose and lipids.  All of these can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system by multiple mechanisms."

"The effect of chocolate is more convoluted since the sucrose and lipid may transiently and negatively impact on endothelial function, partly through insulin signaling and nitric oxide bioavailability."

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