Lifestyle & Nutrition

Cyclooxgenase-1 mediated platelet reactivity in young male smokers

"Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and plasma/urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 11-dehydroxythromboxane B2 levels were higher in cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers."

"The levels of plasma/urinary TXB2 were significantly increased an hour after cigarette smoking."

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Adaptive regression modeling of biomarkers of potential harm in a population of U.S. adult cigarette smokers and nonsmokers

"This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3,585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers.  The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm:  white blood cell count (WBC), 24 h urine 8-ep-prostaglandin F2a, (EP18), 24 h urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (DEH11),  and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)."

"Levels of WBC, EPI8, DEH11 and HDL were statistically associated with biomarkers of exposure to cigarette smoking and demographics and lifestyle factors."

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Effects of pomegranate juice and extract polyphenols on platelet function

"Several clinical and In Vitro studies showed that polyphenols are able to inhibit platelet activation, preventing cerebro- and cardiovascular disease.  The Mediterranean diet includes fruit and vegetables rich in polyphenols known as effective protective agents.  Fruits and vegetables contain polyphenols such as tannins found in red wine and phenolic acid, flavonones, anthoscyanin, flavonols, stilbenes, and lignans found in pomegranates as protective agents from the hot Meditarranean sunshine."

“We have shown that pomegranate juice reduces every step of platelet activation, such as platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, hydrogen peroxide formation, and TxA2 production induced by collagen and arachidonic acid.”

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Natural sources of resveratrol and mechanisms of action with emphasis on cardiovascular disease: a brief review

“Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of red wine reduces the mortality and morbidity from CAD. Muscadine grapes contain high levels of antioxidants, including resveratrol, a polyphenol with multiple cardioprotective effects.” 

"These antioxidants are thought to be the effective agents behind the so-called "French Paradox," the low mortality rate from CAD amongs the French population desipite their high-fat diet and smoking."

"Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation of LDL, prevent the cytoxicity of oxidized LDL, protect cells against lipid peroxidation, reduce platelet aggregation, and inhibit vascular SMC proliferation".

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Cardiovascular biomarkers in groups of established smokers after a decade of smoking

"Significant statistical differences between smokers with approximately 10 years of smoking history and non-smokers in white cell count, hemoglobin and thromboxane turnover were seen, although they did not reach levels associated with overt diseases."

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Molecular targets of tea polyphenols in the cardiovascular system

"Tea-derived polyphenols have attracted considerable attention in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.  In comparison to tumour cells, the elucidation of their molecular targets in cardiovascular relevant cells is still at the beginning.  Although promising, experimental and clinical data demonstrate protective effects for the cardiovasclar system, little information is actually available on how these beneficial effects of tea polyphenols are mediated at the cellular level.  By affecting the activity of receptor and signal transduction kinases, both catechins and theaflavins - the major ingredients of green and black tea, respectively - exert a variety of cardiovascular beneficial effects."

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Role of dietary polyphenols in the platelet aggregation network - a review of the in vitro studies

"Several epidemiological studies have reported a negative association between the intake of dietary polyphenols and the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Conversely, a certain number of studies have reported no association."

"The activity of dietary polyphenols on CVD has been attributed to both their antioxidant activity in preventing LDL oxidation, and to their effect on the pathogenesis of thrombosis by interfering with platelet activation and function.  In fact, platelets play an important role not only in the formation of actute thrombus and vessel occulsion, but also in the development of athersclerosis and CVD."

“The anti-aggregating effect depends in part on the specific structure of the phenol, even though great differences in anti-aggregating activity have been observed within each class.”

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Olive oil and hemostasis: a review on its healthy effects

"Interest in the Mediterranean diet (MD) has grown worldwide in the course of the past decade, even among nutritionists outside of the Mediterranean area.  This is largely due to the fact that the consumption of the MD has been linked to greater longevity, improved quality of life and lower incidences of cardiovascular disease, cancer and age cognitive decline, in spite of being a dietary model with a high fat content, unlike the diets recommended for several decades by many experts in nutrition in other geographical areas."  

“A diet enriched in virgin olive oil can reduce the sensitivity of platelets to aggregation, decreasing von Willebrand and thromboxane B2 plasma levels."

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Molecular targets of dietary polyphenols with anti-inflammatory properties

"Inflammation is the immunological defense mechanism by which the body fights infection or injury from bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.  The defining clinical features of inflammation are known in Latin as rubor (redness), calor (warmth), tumor (swelling) and dolor (pain)."

"In the early 1970's, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were found to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX), which produces prostaglandins (PG's), a class of physiological and pathophysiological inflammatory mediators.  Since then, the biosynthetic cascade of arachadonic acid (AA) has been the subject of intense research.  This is because AA, having been previously liberated from phospholipids using various stimuli, can be metabolized by the COX pathway into PG's and thromboxane A2, or by the lipoxygenase pathways to hydroperoxyeicosateraenoic acids, (HpETEs), hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids (HETEs), and leukotrienes (LTs).  These proteins play a vital role in inflammation by controlling the intensitry and duration of pain, as well as the occurrence of fever, swelling and heat of an affected area."

“Given that certain polyphenols are known to affect more than one protein, it is necessary consider the possibility that any single com- pound may affect multiple mechanisms.”

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Cigarette smoking is associated with increased circulating proinflammatory and procoagulant markers in patients with chronic coronary artery disease; effects of aspirin treatment

"Smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction.  Cytokines released by injured endothelium promote vascular interactions with leukocytes and platelets.  We investigated whether (a) cigarette smoking is linked to increased cytokine production, which may mediate platelet activation and thrombin generation in chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and (b) aspirin treatment inhibits smoking-related changes on cytokines, platelets, and thrombin."

"After aspirin treatment, M-CSF, CRP, 11-dehydro-TXB2, and prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 remained higher in smokers compared with non smokers despite a significant reduction of these markers by aspirin."

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